Your Perfect Assignment is Just a Click Away

Starting at $8.00 per Page

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Customized to Your instructions!


  PROBLEM 4–20 A mountain range can be represented as a periodic topography with a wavelength

  PROBLEM 4–20 A mountain range can be represented as a periodic topography with a wavelength

  PROBLEM 4–20 A mountain range can be represented as a periodic topography with a wavelength


PROBLEM 4–20 A mountain range can be represented as a periodic topography with a wavelength of 100 km and an amplitude of 1.2 km. Heat flow in a valley is measured to be 46 mW m?2. If the atmospheric gradi- ent is 6.5 K km?1 and k = 2.5 Wm?1 K?1, determine what the heat flow would have been without topog- raphy; that is, make a topographic correction. 

PROBLEM 4–29 Estimate the effects of variations in bottom water temperature on measurements of oceanic heat flow by using the model of a semi-infinite half-space subjected to periodic surface temperature fluctuations. Such water temperature variations at a specific location on the ocean floor can be due to, for example, the transport of water with variable tem- perature past the site by deep ocean currents. Find the amplitude of water temperature variations that cause surface heat flux variations of 40 mW m?2 above and below the mean on a time scale of 1 day. As- sume that the thermal conductivity of sediments is 0.8 W m?1 K?1 and the sediment thermal diffusivity is 0.2 mm2 s?1. 

PROBLEM 4–33 One way of determining the effects of erosion on subsurface temperatures is to consider the instantaneous removal of a thickness l of ground. Prior to the removal T = T0 + ?y, where y is the depth, ? is the geothermal gradient, and T0 is the surface temperature. After removal, the new surface is main- tained at temperature T0. Show that the subsurface temperature after the removal of the surface layer is given by 

How is the surface heat flow affected by the removal of surface material? 

PROBLEM 4–39 One of the estimates for the age of the Earth given by Lord Kelvin in the 1860s assumed that Earth was initially molten at a constant tem- perature Tm and that it subsequently cooled by con- duction with a constant surface temperature T0. The age of the Earth could then be determined from the present surface thermal gradient (dT/dy)0. Re- produce Kelvin’s result assuming Tm ? T0 = 1700 K, c=1 kJ kg?1 K?1, L =400 kJ kg?1, ? =1 mm2 s?1, and (dT/dy)0 = 25 K km?1 . In addition, determine the thickness of the solidified lithosphere. Note: Since the solidified layer is thin compared with the Earth’s radius, the curvature of the surface may be neglected. 

PROBLEM4–43 Themantlerocksoftheasthenosphere from which the lithosphere forms are expected to contain a small amount of magma. If the mass frac- tion of magma is 0.05, determine the depth of the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary for oceanic li- thosphere with an age of 60 Ma. Assume L = 400 kJ kg?1,c=1kJkg?1 K?1,Tm =1600K,T0 =275K,and ? = 1 mm2 s?1. 

PROBLEM 4–52 The ocean ridges are made up of a series of parallel segments connected by transform faults, as shown in Figure 1–13. Because of the dif- ference of age there is a vertical offset on the fracture zones. Assuming the theory just derived is applica- ble, what is the vertical offset (a) at the ridge crest and (b) 100 km from the ridge crest in Figure 4–46 (?m = 3300kgm?3,?=1mm2s?1,?v =3×10?5 K?1,T1? T0=1300K,u=50mmyr?1). 

PROBLEM 5–7 What is the value of the acceleration of gravity at a distance b above the geoid at the equator (b ? a)? 

PROBLEM 5–18 A volcanic plug of diameter 10 km has a gravity anomaly of 0.3 mm s?2. Estimate the depth of the plug assuming that it can be modeled by a verti- cal cylinder whose top is at the surface. Assume that the plug has density of 3000 kg m?3 and the rock it intrudes has a density of 2800 kg m?3. 

"Place your order now for a similar assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, guaranteeing you A results."

Order Solution Now

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Eminence Papers only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Eminence Papers are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Eminence Papers are known for the timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Eminence Papers, we have put in place a team of experts who answer all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.